Conference program arranged by day
Program by Theme
Conference program arranged by subject
How the sessions are arranged during the conference
All proposed keynotes
The headline talks of the conference
Award talks and ceremonies
Members of the committees organising the conference
Electronic version of the printed program volume
Early Career Events
The Early career event program provides opportunities for less senior scientists to network and learn from volunteers from the community.
These events are all being planned by our exhibitors. To find out more information, visit them on their booths.
Pre- and post-conference field trips
Workshops running during, before or after the conference
Mineral-Hosted Melt Inclusion: How Do We Read The Stories They Have To Tell?
This workshop is being held at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Registration and payment for this workshop is being managed directly by the workshop organisers. Registration will open in late January 2018. TO BOOK A PLACE ON THIS COURSE PLEASE CLICK THE WEBSITE LINK ABOVE. Small pockets of melt entrapped within growing mineral grains (mineral-hosted melt inclusions) are commonly used to study everything from mantle heterogeneity to pre-eruptive magmatic volatiles. The information recorded in melt inclusions is unique because entrapped melts are physically shielded from most interactions with the external environment by the host mineral. Melt inclusion studies require careful sample preparation, application of state-of-the-art analytical methods, and meticulous attention to potential artifacts related to post-entrapment processes. As analytical techniques progress and our understanding of post-entrapment processes evolve, it is important that the rapidly growing melt inclusion community periodically assess the state of the field. This workshop provides those who study melt inclusions – or would like to – with the opportunity take stock of available analytical tools and protocols for dealing with complications such as post-entrapment crystallization, diffusive re-equilibration, and the presence of vapor bubbles. Specific topics to be discussed include: What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry? What are best practices for reconstructing total CO2 when vapor bubbles are present? How reliable are H2O concentrations and the oxidation state of Fe recorded in melt inclusions? One objective of the workshop is to develop guidelines for publication of data from melt inclusion studies to be summarized in a collegial manuscript that the organizers will submit for publication shortly after the workshop. Registration is $250 for faculty/postdocs and $200 for students.
MSA Short Course: High Temperature Gas – Solid Reactions in Earth and Planetary Processes
BOOKING OPEN IN JANUARY 2018. Registration and payment for this workshop is being managed directly by MSA. TO BOOK A PLACE ON THIS COURSE PLEASE CLICK ON THE WEBSITE LINK ABOVE. The goal of this Short Course is to review, update and synthesize the current knowledge of high temperature gas-solid reactions relevant to the geosciences. In addition, we aim to grow research area that has previously received little attention, yet is critical for advancing our understanding of magmatic systems, planet evolution and industrial processes. Graduate students, researchers and geoscientists are warmly welcome to attend the Short Course which will be accompanied by a Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Volume. Early registration is $350 for a professional and $250 for a student.
Reactive Transport Modeling in Geochemical Systems
Saturday 11th August 08:00 - Sunday 12th August 17:00
Contacts: Craig Bethke, Jenny Druhan, University of Illinois, Brian Farrell, Aqueous Solutions Llc, Melika Sharifi, University of Notre Dame, Kate Maher, Stanford University
Location: CAS B06A, Boston University View on map
(FULLY BOOKED) Please join us for two days of hands-on training in reactive transport modeling using The Geochemist's Workbench®. Following a fully hands-on format, you will learn to construct, trace, and interpret models of transport in reacting geochemical systems. Specific topics covered include: an introduction to geochemical modeling; transport in flowing groundwater; dual porosity models (stagnant zones); Kd, Freundlich, and Langmuir sorption; surface complexation; colloid-facilitated transport; reaction kinetics; biodegradation; dissolution and precipitation; microbial catalysis and growth; effective graphical presentation; and creating animation and video. The topics will be illustrated by the instructors through a series of case studies.
Calcium Isotope Workshop – Building Community, Discussing Research Directions, and Evaluating New Technologies
The aim of this one-day workshop is to bring together people interested in the application of calcium (Ca) isotopes to topics relevant within the earth and environmental sciences, as well as biomedicine and archeology. We recognize that a cohesive, well-connected research community is best able to solve a range of problems, promote the use of Ca isotopes, and push proxy development forward. The workshop will promote active discussion focused on the themes listed below. Themes for the workshop: 1) New Developments and Old Issues in Ca Isotope Analysis 2) Elucidating Geochemical Cycles at Local, Regional, and Global Scales using Ca Isotopes 3) Ca Isotopes in Deep Time: Potential and Limitations 4) Numerical Modeling of Ca Isotopes in Terrestrial and Marine Settings 5) New Frontiers in Ca Isotope Geochemistry Each participant should prepare a 1-slide presentation that fits within one of the themes, highlighting a particular question, topic, or problem that can be discussed in breakout discussion groups. It is our hope that the workshop will serve as platform for the development of a Ca isotope community. This includes the improvement of interpersonal relationships in an informal setting, the formation of new research collaborations, the community-wide adoption of solutions to common problems, and the enunciation of key future research directions. Though not included in the Saturday workshop, there will be an opportunity for informal lab tours/instrument demos at Harvard after Goldschmidt by both Nu and Thermo.
CANCELLED The Magma Chamber Simulator, a phase equilibria modelling tool for magma recharge, crustal assimilation and crystallization (RAFC)
Unfortunately this workshop has been cancelled. For more information about MCS, please go to: http://mcs.geol.ucsb.edu/, or contact one of the conveners
Computational thermodynamics and fluid dynamics with the ENKI software portal: An introduction aimed at early career researchers
Saturday 11th August 09:00 - Sunday 12th August 17:00
Contacts: Mark S. Ghiorso, Marc W Spiegelman, Columbia University, Aaron S Wolf, University of Michigan
Location: CAS 201, Boston University View on map
This workshop will provide a hands-on survey of software and modeling tools available at the ENKI-portal. ENKI is an on-going project funded by the National Science Foundation that provides software tools and a computational ecosystem for geochemical simulations that are based on thermodynamics and fluid dynamics. ENKI is aimed at students and researchers interested in using, creating, and maintaining models and in developing interconnected scientific modeling frameworks. We will introduce the capabilities of ENKI and demonstrate how thermodynamic calculations like phase diagrams, pseudosections, geothermobarometers, and mass transfer calculations (MELTS, EQ6, DEW) can be rapidly and easily computed. We will also show how thermochemical databases can be utilized to support fluid dynamical simulations. ENKI currently supports a number of thermodynamic databases and solution model collections, including those of Berman, Holland and Powell, Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni, MELTS, DEW and SUPCRT. Participants will learn how these databases can be extended or recalibrated in light of new data or insights using the model calibration infrastructure provided by ENKI. Attendees will need a laptop for this workshop for real-time access to the ENKI server portal.
Geochemical Modelling WorkshopUsing PHREEQC for laboratory and industrial applications
This two day workshop will provide an introduction to geochemical modelling and the USGS geochemical / thermodynamic modelling code PHREEQC (PH, REdox, EQuilibrium, Code). PHREEQC is a free, well-supported software code and one of the most, if not the most, widely used code amongst academia and industry for thermodynamic modelling applications. During the two day workshop, we will present the different geochemical modelling steps, from the definition of a conceptual model to the geochemical calculations within PHREEQC. We will also present exercises drawn from the presenters’ experiences, both in a laboratory setting and applied industrial setting. The workshop will take place in four sessions split over the two days. The first day will provide an introduction to geochemical models, the conceptualisation of the problems, and an overview of the thermodynamics that govern PHREEQC and the definitions within the databases. We will make a point of discussing the thermodynamic databases available within PHREEQC, their issues and the possible ways to overcome these. We will also provide the basic skills needed to use PHREEQC, including the definition of inputs and outputs, of solid and aqueous solutions, and of the reactions and equilibrium calculations. The second day will provide a more in-depth look at the possibilities offered by PHREEQC in terms of kinetic, transport, and sorption calculations. The aim is to develop an understanding of how to extract the equations defining the reactivity of mineralogical phases from the literature or experimental data and integrate these into PHREEQC. We will then show you how to use sorption experiments to define attenuation equations and sorption blocks in the program and provide an introduction to transport simulations. The workshop will finish with a general discussion.
LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb Network shortcourse - Saturday Only
New community-derived standards in data reporting and uncertainty propagation for LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb geochronology were recently published. This shortcourse will detail these new recommendations, their significance for workflow and assist practitioners in their implementation. Improvements will be highlighted which result from implementing these new recommendations, particularly in understanding the comparison of sample ages at different levels of uncertainty propagation. This shortcourse is open to all active practitioners of U-Th-Pb geochronology.
Metasomatism and ore deposits in the Earth’s crust: experimental and modeling methods
Saturday 11th August 09:00 - Sunday 12th August 17:00
Contacts: Alexander P. Gysi (Colorado School of Mines), Daniel Harlov (GFZ Potsdam), Dmitrii A. Kulik (PSI, Switzerland), George D. Miron (PSI, Switzerland)
Location: CAS 203, Boston University View on map
This two-day NSF-sponsored workshop includes hands-on tutorials, lectures, and discussions about current numerical thermodynamic modeling methods, the databases required, and the experimental approaches used for studying metal transport associated with hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction in the crust coupled with examples from nature. The goal of this workshop is to link thermodynamic modeling and experimental approaches, and bring together a broad community interested in the interpretation of crustal metasomatism and ore-forming processes. Participants in the workshop will be provided with a memory stick, which contains the free software, thermodynamic databases, tutorials and relevant references covered. The workshop is intended for graduate students, researchers, and professionals whom want to learn how to apply the GEMS code package (http://gems.web.psi.ch) to geochemical modeling, as well as learn about how to use current experimental methods regarding fluid-rock equilibria at elevated P-T conditions. The GEMS code package is based on Gibbs energy minimization, and provides a user friendly framework for predicting mass transfer in complex non-ideal systems such as those associated with fluid-rock interaction and ore-forming processes. The workshop will cover: 1) fundamentals of the GEM-Selektor code package and thermodynamic databases for simulating fluid-rock systems; 2) the GEMSFITS parameter optimization tool for optimizing thermodynamic properties against experimental data; 3) an overview of experimental advances in the study of the stability and mobility of metasomatically induced and altered REE mineral phases in crustal rocks (e.g. monazite, xenotime, apatite, allanite, and titanite); 4) field case studies of metasomatism and associated REE mineral deposits. The first day of the workshop will cover 1) and 2). Here participants will learn the tools necessary to simulate fluid-rock equilibria at high P-T conditions and how to retrieve the parameters for geochemical modeling. These tools include the GEMS code package, which is supported by a tutorial series for different ore-forming processes (e.g., Greisen tin deposits), and by the MINES thermodynamic database (http://tdb.mines.edu). The second day of the workshop will cover 3) and 4). Here participants will be introduced to the experimental methods and field examples necessary for studying the solubility and speciation of REE in crustal fluids. Short discussion sessions will be included in order for the audience to find connections between the content of the workshop and their own particular interests in crustal fluid-rock interaction, including examples from both nature and experiments. More information about the workshop will be available on the web link above in due time.
Nanoscience in the Earth and Environmental Sciences—From Theory to Practice
Nanoscience is a frontier area of research that provides abundant opportunities in many different scientific and engineering disciplines. Currently, the Earth and environmental sciences are underrepresented in their participation in this revolutionary field of study, which currently contributes to nano-enabled products worth roughly $1 trillion annually! There is currently an amazing arsenal of analytical methods that are available to characterize the identity, morphology, composition (bulk and surface), chemical state, atomic structure and related chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles. This workshop will focus on practical aspects of using this instrumentation (e.g., AFM and Electron microscopy, surface analysis, fractionation methods, ICP-MS, light-scattering, among many others) in doing nanogeoscience. Topics to be covered include sample collection in the field, sample preparation/preservation, and instrumental data acquisition, reduction, and representation. The workshop will include invited presentations, group discussions, and hands-on demonstrations of modern software packages applied to authentic datasets. Instrument vendors will be invited to demonstrate their latest operating systems. Participants are encouraged to bring examples of their own procedures and protocols to demonstrate to the group and receive feedback. Outcomes of this workshop will be an online "toolkit" of methods and procedures that will be available for use by the entire community in research and instruction. Opportunities to participate in the US National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure program will also be described.
Quantitative Compositional Mapping of Geological Materials using XMapTools
Over the last decade, quantitative compositional mapping has emerged as a powerful technique to aid petrological interpretations. Chemical maps of major, minor and trace elements can both depict the spatial distribution of each mineral phase and capture their compositional variability at the micro-scale. However, computer tools are required to calibrate the maps and to produce numerical datasets that enable quantitative investigation of specific petrological processes. The software solution XMapTools is at the cutting edge of progress in this sector, and aims to simplify the data processing by providing statistical toolboxes and functions embedded in a user-friendly graphical user interface. This two-day workshop is chiefly designed as an XMapTools beginner course, where participants will be introduced to the software and learn how to use it routinely. It will involve a series of lectures and practicals from XMapTools developers and experts that explore a variety of applications of quantified map data, including integrated computation of P-T estimates, identification of mineral growth and dissolution events, and assessment of geochemical mobility during fluid-rock interaction. The participants will have the opportunity to learn how to calibrate and analyze compositional maps acquired by both EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. This course will provide an important foundation accessible to high-level undergraduate students, graduate students, and professional researchers who are using or planning to use quantitative compositional maps in their own studies.
(FULLY BOOKED) Data Science in Geochemistry
The rapidly growing volume of geochemical data that are accessible in online synthesis databases and the availability of new information and computing technology together provide geoscientists with new ways to explore, mine, visualize, and analyze geochemical data. This workshop is intended to provide opportunities for researchers, especially early career scientists, to learn about geochemical data resources and tools for mining, visualizing, and statistically analyzing the data, and to explore additional software tools and data resources that advance data science in geochemistry. The workshop will include brief introductions to fundamental aspects of geochemical data management and data access in geochemistry, and provide time for participants to think creatively and design new ways to use and interact with the data and develop research applications. Participants will be encouraged to contribute scientific use cases around which breakout groups can form. The price is $40 and $20 at the student rate.
CANCELLED Extraction strategies and procedures applied to organic compounds from a variety of matrices
Sunday 12th August 09:00-17:00
Contacts: Calum Morrison
This one day workshop will comprise lectures, tutorials and opportunities for short class discussion and may be of particular value to early career researchers. The workshop will focus on methods and strategies for extraction of mainly organic molecules from a variety of matrices. We will briefly review some of the techniques including solid phase micro extraction and related technologies, solid phase extraction, solvent extraction and newer/combined developments. Other preparation processes including chemical derivatisation and a brief mention of instrumental techniques (GCMS, LCMS etc) will be covered if required for clarity and putting overall discussion into context. Examples of extraction will be illustrated from a variety of subject areas with an emphasis on molecule type, method development / approaches and important applications. Some examples include drugs, volatile hydrocarbons, pesticides, fatty acids, amines and related molecules from biological, environmental and food matrices. The workshop will finish with a discussion session to sum up key points from the day.
Isotope Ratio Measurements, Metrology, and the SI
Isotopic reference materials (iRMs) connect us, whether you are adding data to the canon of paleoenvironmental reconstruction, doing the first measurements in a non-traditional isotope system or seeking the oldest surviving crustal artefacts. Please join us for a workshop on the status of iRMs and how to improve them. The program will include invited lectures from a wide variety of disciplines and techniques such as: non-traditional isotopes, forensics, geochronology, atmospheric sciences, laser ablation, et cetera. Experts will discuss status of measurements in their field, the iRMs that support their work, and anticipated future iRM and instrumentation needs. With the redefinition of the kilogram and the mole taking place in 2018, this is the perfect time and venue to increase the scientific understanding and cooperation between metrologists and bio/geochemists. Expected outcomes from this workshop will be a better understanding of the crucial role iRMs play in our science as well as a deeper insight into the very real diversity of needs within the iRM community. Participants will have the opportunity to voice their concerns in characterizing the needs of the isotope ratio measurement community and drafting potential solutions. Brought to you by the Isotopic Reference Materials Working Group.
LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb Network workshop - Sunday Only
The initial results for two experiments targeted to improve LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb geochronology were discussed at the Goldschmidt 2015 workshop in Prague. New data and updated interpretations for both experiments will now be discussed. The first experiment describes results from a comparison of a single dataset processed through the more commonly available processing software tools. Particular questions we are looking to address include: How significant are the biases introduced by different data processing packages and where do they occur in the processing workflow? What level of uncertainty do these contribute to community results and are the uncertainty outputs of the different processing tools the same? The second experiment describes the biases seen by different LA-ICP-MS laboratories for a range of commonly available zircon U-Th-Pb reference materials. This ‘offset plot’ experiment looks to address whether the same magnitude and polarity of bias is seen by all labs for the same reference materials. Do we all see the same biases and what are their cause? The results of these community experiments have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the total uncertainty budget for LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb geochronology and where significant improvements can be made. We will discuss these issues and highlight improvements to common practice that should lead to improved performance across the LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb community.
Rare Element Deposit Associated with Coal Workshop
Sunday 12th August 09:00-17:00
Contacts: Prof. Dr. Yuzhuang Sun, Prof. Dr. S.I. Arbuzov, Prof. Dr. Prakash Kumar Singh, Prof. Dr. R.B. Finkelman, Cunliang Zhao
Location: CAS 208, Boston University View on map
More and more anomalous enrichments of rare elements such as Ga, Li, Ge, Nb (Ta)-Ree, Th-U, Rb-Cs-Sc, and Au in coal were found around the world coal deposits. In some case, it can reach levels equal to or even higher than their concentrations in many conventional types of respective ores. Workshop on rare trace elements deposit associated with coal will cover on some basic information and new developments, such as: the definition of this new deposit, the distribution of this deposit around the world, the concentration, occurrence, enrichment mechanism of rare elements in coal. And some case, significant enrichments of rare elements associated with coal deposit in China, Russia, India, and so on will be detailed explanation. Moreover, update on extract technologies of valuable elements from coal ashes will be introduced. The workshop is oriented to PhD students, postdocs and research scientists. We hope that the workshop will help developing the key future research direction on geochemistry of rare elements in coal.
Oral Presentation Skills for Students
Sunday 12th August 12:30-17:00
Contacts: Alice Williams
Giving a presentation at Goldschmidt can be a daunting prospect, particularly for those who are presenting at an international conference for the first time or whose first language is not English. During this afternoon workshop, students will have the opportunity to practise, get feedback, and work on their Goldschmidt talks in small groups led by young anglophone scientists experienced in giving oral presentations. The course will be a half-day and will be held in the Hynes centre so those attending can best prepare to give their talks in the same set up as will be used in the conference. Specific help and guidance will be provided for students whose first language is not English, and group leaders will be trained and coordinated by a professional English language instructor. A workshop manual will be provided in advance to help students design and prepare their presentations before arriving in Boston. Priority will be given to students giving an oral presentation at Goldschmidt2018. This course is supported by the GS.
Succeeding In Academia/Finding and Succeeding Outside of Academia
Sunday 12th August 13:00-16:30
Location: GSU Metcalf Small PM, Boston University View on map
Sunday afternoon is dedicated to how to find a job! Two workshops will run back-to-back, and you can take advantage of both. At least 50% of Ph.D. graduates in the geosciences are employed outside of the academy, including in industry, policy, research laboratories, state agencies, and private enterprise. This workshop will discuss how to best prepare yourself for opportunities both inside and outside of academia. You will be exposed to a range of geoscience careers, understand how best to prepare your application materials, have your questions directly answered, and network with peers and panelists! This workshop is geared towards graduate students and post-docs considering a career in the geosciences workforce, but open to all who are interested.
Panels will run concurrently (13:00-14:30, 15:00-16:30), twice, so you can attend each one.
In ‘Finding and Succeeding Outside of Academia’ you will learn how to best “sell” your skillsets and accomplishments for a non-academic reviewer; how to find positions available in the geoscience workforce; and how to prepare now for the career that is right for you. The program includes both presentation and open question and answer time with panelists. Panelists include Heather Houlton (Workforce Development Specialist, American Geosciences Institute), Rebecca Neely (Associate Editor, Nature Geoscience), Jennifer Wade (Program Officer, National Science Foundation) and Vicki McConnell (Executive Director, Geological Society of America).
In ‘Succeeding In Academia’, experts from a range of institutions (MIT, Princeton, Harvard amongst others) will discuss their career paths and answer YOUR questions about navigating the academic job search, building a research and teaching program, successfully competing for external funding, etc. Panelists will briefly introduce their career paths followed by open question-and-answer time with the audience.
Improving Work Climate: Responding to Sexual Harassment
Presenters and Moderators:
Dr. Meredith Hastings is an Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences at Brown University.
Dr. Rebecca Barnes is an Assistant Professor in the Environmental Program at Colorado College.
This workshop is based upon materials developed as part of an NSF-funded ADVANCE project (ADVANCE Partnership: From the Classroom to the Field: Improving the Workplace in the Geosciences). This interactive session will discuss how national scientific societies are addressing the problem of sexual harassment in research and educational environments (classroom, lab, field, conferences), provide training in personal intervention strategies to protect and support targets of harassment, and identify resources for cultural and institutional change to prevent hostile climates.
Harassment endangers the professional and personal well-being of individuals and their communities and contributes to hostile climates in science. It can exploit differences in religion, race, class, ability, sexual orientation, and gender identity and is especially toxic when perpetrated by people in positions of power, such as supervisors or advisors. We focus on sexual harassment although many of the lessons learned apply to other types of harassment or bullying. Our goal is to raise awareness of the problem, discuss initiatives to address harassment as research misconduct, and present practical strategies for reducing instances of harassment and for supporting its targets. As a result of this session, participants will be able to identify: (1) different ways in which sexual harassment can manifest in research environments; (2) strategies for bystander intervention and for reporting harassment, and (3) resources to share with their home departments for cultural change.
This 90-minute session will consist of: 1) 15-minute presentation of information, 2) 10-minute training of bystander intervention strategies, 3) 30-minute presentation and discussion of real world scenarios, 4) 15-minute active practice of bystander intervention through role playing, and 5) 20-minute discussion and final debriefing. The information section will present data on the problem and examples of how universities and professional societies are addressing sexual harassment through promoting cultural and institutional change. The training section will present bystander intervention strategies and resources for targets and the community. During the next two parts, participants will discuss their response to anonymized real scenarios and practice intervention strategies in small groups at separate tables. Finally, a group discussion moderated by the presenters will allow for follow-up questions and general debriefing of this sensitive topic. Participants will receive documentation of resources to take to their home departments. Session presenters will moderate the discussions.
Links to resources relevant to this topic can be found here
Curating Your Public Profile: Advocacy, Risks, and Rewards
Thursday 16th August 08:30-11:30
Location: 102 View on map
A free science communication workshop with keynote by Gavin Schmidt, Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and co-founder of the climate science blog RealClimate.
As scientists we can contribute to the science literacy of diverse audiences, but learning how to do so effectively can be tricky. How can you separate your own personal political opinions from the information you provide as a scientist? Is it even important to do so? How can you manage competing affiliations, from university appointments to membership in professional societies or advocacy organizations? Following a keynote lecture and Q&A with Gavin Schmidt, breakout sessions will engage participants in activities and dialogue about how curating your own public profile will help you contribute effectively to the scientific literacy of students, politicians, the media, and the general public.
8:30 Workshop Introduction
8:45 Keynote by Gavin Schmidt
9:15 Keynote Q&A
9:30 Breakout Session #1
10:00 Breakout Session #2
10:30 Breakout Session #3
11:00 Closing Summary
Thermodynamic data collection and assessment
Saturday 18th August 09:00-18:00
This workshop is not being organised by the conference. Please see the web link for more information on booking. A one-day course, sponsored by Los Alamos National Lab (LANL, United States) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) TDB project, on the topic of thermodynamic data collection and assessment is being offered in conjunction with the 256th American Chemical Society (ACS) National Meeting (Boston, MA, United States). This overview course is designed to familiarise scientists with current NEA TDB activities and standards, provide an overview of data collection and analysis techniques, and work through some real system examples to demonstrate the critical evaluation and data assessment process. Retaining high scientific standards for the collection, interpretation, critical review and application of thermodynamic data is a key goal of the NEA TDB, and will help assure that a strong scientific basis for the safety case is maintained to support international nuclear waste management options.