Trace Element Fluxes to the Baltic Sea: Problems of Atmospheric and Fluvial Input Budgets

Jörg Matschullat Institut für Umwelt-Geochemie, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany

The geogenic background load on the Baltic Sea via wet deposition is estimated to be for As 10, Cd 3, Co 3, Cr 20, Cu 130, Hg 0.1, Ni 5, Pb 20 and Zn 350 (t a-1), while the total atmospheric deposition in the nineties amounts to ca. As 50, Cd 60,
Co 20, Cr 100, Cu 1200, Hg 20, Ni 100, Pb 1300 and Zn 5000 (t a-1).

The element input via rivers can be separated in a geogenic part with As 58, Cd 5, Co 120, Cr 270, Cu 310, Hg 5, Ni 165, Pb 140 and Zn 1700 (t a-1), and an anthropogenic part with a rather heterogeneous distribution. The total river input (including diffuse sources) is estimated to be for As 200, Cd 60, Co 200, Cr 440, Cu 1300, Hg 50, Ni 300, Pb 1500 und Zn 6000 (t a-1). The highest load comes from tributaries in Poland and the Baltic countries. For each element the total anthropogenic influence is quantified as ranging between 40 and 90%.

While the existing monitoring networks do a very good job quantifying components like N and S, major inaccuracies arise from an insufficient database for atmospheric inputs over the open sea. In addition, detailed knowledge on precipitation dynamics is missing. Similar inadequacies arise with fluvial inputs - both dissolved and particulate.

Standardless XRF-Analysis in Geochemistry -
Future or Reality?

Karl Mauser Siemens AG, Karlsruhe, Germany

X-ray fluorescence analysis is a well-established method for elemental analysis in geochemistry. Traditionally any user sets up his own measuring conditions and calibrates his instrument with his own standards. New software developments allow to create universal calibrations for a wide range of materials, concentrations and preparation methods. Such precalibrated programs can be installed with help of only a few reference samples and therefore are sometimes called 'standardless' programs.

A specialised precalibrated program for geochemical analysis will be described, the new measurement method of this program will be explained and various application data will be given.