Themes and Sessions


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Theme 18: Frontiers in Analytical techniques

Co-ordinators:
Gerd Gleixner (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry )
Tim Elliott (Bristol University)
Ed Young (University of California)

Theme 18 sessions:

18a: Advances in Resolution and Accuracy of in situ Determination of Isotope Ratios
Convenors: Anders Meibom, Jan Kosler
Keynote: Takafumi Hirata (Kyoto University)
Orals: Mon AM, Mon PM
Posters: Mon PM
The coupling of multi-collector instruments with laser ablation/plasma or secondary ionisation sources has given rise to a wealth of new opportunities for in situ isotope ratio determination. New technologies have enhanced a wide range of capabilities from high spatial resolution with high ion-yields on in SIMS to minimisation of fractionation on larger sample sizes for high precision ratio measurement using femto second lasers. Additionally, a welcome resurgence of custom built instruments addresses novel frontiers of challenging measurements.
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18b: New Isotopic Systems at Unprecedented Precision
Convenors: Magali Bonifacie, Joel Baker
Keynote: Marc Chaussidon (CNRS)
Orals: Tue PM
Posters: Tue PM
New approaches in plasma, gas and thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry have revolutionised the range and precision of isotope systems that can be measured. The aim of this session is to explore causes of current disagreement and means to make further improvements. In particular, the session wishes to address the challenges in developing novel stable isotope systems (e.g. Cl and Se), pushing the limits of precision in internally normalised isotope ratios (e.g. Nd and Mg) and the burgeoning field of isotopologue measurement.
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18c: Accurate and Consistent Time-Keeping in Geological History
Convenors: Dan Condon, Fin Stuart, Claudine Stirling
Keynote: Andrea Dutton (University of Florida)
Orals: Thu AM
Posters: Wed PM
Over the past five years there has been major international effort to produce a consistent chronology for geological history, as reflected by the EARTHTIME and CRONUS initiatives. The issues of accuracy, precision and consistency are key to all radio-isotopic systems. This session will focus on the techniques necessary for the accurate quantification of geologic time, and their application. We seek to highlight the recent advances made in the full range of geochronological systems, from cosmogenic isotopes to cosmochronology, and the inter-calibration of different techniques.
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18d: Advanced Microanalytical, Spectroscopic and (Spectro-)microscopic Surface Methods: STXM, NEXAFS, AFM, NANOSIMS,..
Convenors: Kai Totsche, Karim Benzerara
Keynote: Anders Meibom (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Orals: Mon PM, Tue AM
Posters: Mon PM
A number of advances in measurements on surfaces, including Nanosims, new RIMS procedures, XANES and NEXAFS have been applied to problems ranging from organic matter-surface interactions to cosmic particles. The aim of this session is to bring together specialists of various fields using diverse microanalytical, spectroscopic- and (spectro-)microscopic techniques (list is not exhaustive) that provide insight into the surface morphology and reactivity of minerals, speciation of elements, imaging of particles, isotopic and/or trace element compositions of environmental samples
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18e: Novel Molecular Methods to Understand Past and Present Biogeochemical Processes
Convenors: Dirk Sachse, Valerie Schwab-Lavric
Keynote: Tim Eglinton (ETH Zurich)
Orals: Wed AM, Wed PM
Posters: Tue PM
Past and present biogeochemical cycling of organic material deposited in terrestrial and marine archives both forces and reacts to environmental changes. Over the last decade a number of novel approaches deciphering the molecular record in soils and sediments have been developed to understand the complex interactions between the geo- and biosphere today and over geological timescales. For this session we invite contributions presenting such approaches including but not limited to the development of novel lipid biomarker tools, compound-specific specific stable isotope analysis of organic compounds as well as the ancient DNA approach. We welcome paleoclimatic as well as modern calibration studies.
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18g: Non-Traditional Isotopes in Non-Traditional Matrices
Convenors: Jean Carignan, Sander van den Boorn, Christophe Cloquet
Keynote: Friedhelm von Blanckenburg (GFZ Potsdam)
Orals: Wed PM
Posters: Wed PM
The increasing accessibility of ‘non-traditional’ stable isotope tracers has led to their widespread application in range of matrices. The use of transition metals in biological systems to examine metabolism, redox sensitive elements to trace batches of oil and their conditions of formation, isotopic labels of food-stuffs and chalcophile elements to trace pollution are a few examples of techniques developed for geological materials transferred to new and commercial settings. This session will explore the scope and challenges of applying novel techniques to varied and frequently difficult matrices. Contributions on isotopes in speciation are welcomed as well.
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18h: Recent Advances in the Application of Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis in the Biogeosciences
Convenors: Alain Plante, Nieves Barros
Keynote: Maria Teresa Dell'Abate (CRA-RPS- Agricultural Research Council, Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System )
Orals: Thu PM
Posters: Wed PM
Thermal analysis techniques have long been used in the geosciences, particularly in clay mineralogy. There are increasing demands for rapid and quantitative assessments of organic matter stability in soils, sediments and organic wastes, due to their implication in the global carbon cycle. Thermal analysis (ie, DSC and TG) and calorimetric techniques focused on the exothermic reactions associated with the oxidation of organic matter have therefore received increased recent attention because they can provide insight into the biogeochemical stability of organic matter with minimal sample preparation. The goal of the proposed session is to present the state of the art in the application of thermal analysis and calorimetry to complex environmental samples as a novel and evolving tool in the biogeochemical and ecosystem sciences.
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Theme 18 related sessions:

05g: Duration, Tempo and Rates of Magmatic Processes in the Crust
Convenors: Urs Schaltegger, Othmar Müntener
Keynote: Catherine Annen (Univ. of Bristol)
Orals: Mon PM
Posters: Mon PM
The understanding of the timing of magmatic processes has strongly developed with the advent of high-precision dating and high-resolution elemental and isotopic analysis of magmatic minerals. Crucial for accurate interpretation of temporal data is the understanding of accessory mineral behaviour during the evolution of a magmatic system. This session should provide a forum, where new results can be presented and discussed that shed light on the duration, the periodicity and the rates, how plutons and batholiths are built within the crust. One of the aims of our session is to bring together different approaches to resolve time issues, such a numerical and thermal models, and high precision dating to advance the understanding of rates of processes in young and ancient magmatic systems.
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08b: Chemical and Microbial Electron Transfer Processes at Mineral Surfaces
Convenors: Kevin Rosso, Andreas Kappler
Keynote: Gordon Brown (Stanford)
Orals: Wed PM, Thu AM
Posters: Wed PM
The chemical behavior of mineral-water and mineral-microbe interfaces is central to aqueous reactivity in natural waters, soil evolution, atmospheric chemistry, and is of direct relevance for maintaining the integrity of waste repositories and remediating environmental pollutants. An important subset of reactions is the exchange of electron equivalents across these interfaces associated with natural variation in redox conditions or the activity of microorganisms. For example, microbially catalyzed reductive transformation and/or formation of Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides such as ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite or magnetite by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria is a process that can link to and control transport of redox-active contaminants. Detailed microbiologic study has revealed the presence of highly efficient biomolecular machinery for interfacial electron transfer localized on the outer-membranes of these microorganisms. Multi-heme cytochromes with high heme densities appear optimized for efficient interfacial electron transfer. Furthermore, some Fe(III)-oxides specifically utilized by these microorganisms, such as hematite, are natural electrical semiconductors with the propensity to accept and mobilize electrons in support of sustained microbiologic respiration. This session emphasizes current experimental research and computational modeling studies focused on elucidating mechanisms and kinetics of electron exchange across this interface from the scale of microbial cells down to the molecular scale. Common aspects of biomolecular and solid-state electron transfer processes at this environmental interface will be highlighted in terms of modern electron transfer theory.
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08j: Nanoparticles, Interfacial Processes and Nuclear Waste Management
Convenors: Andrey Kalinichev, Stepan N Kalmykov, Melissa Denecke
Keynote: Sergey Churakov (Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland)
Orals: Thu PM, Fri AM
Posters: Thu PM
Ensuring sustainable long-term safety and stability of nuclear waste management systems requires detailed knowledge of radionuclide behavior in the geosphere over temporal and spatial scales spanning many orders of magnitude, ranging from macroscopic and multipore Darcy scale, to micrometer-pore scale, to nanoscale, down to molecular-level chemical reactivity. Thorough understanding of nanoscale phenomena is especially important in this complex picture, because due to their intrinsic dimensions and associated structure and properties different the respective bulk phases, nanoparticles and nanointerfaces play a crucial role in numerous geochemical and environmental processes, which can potentially have a detrimental effect on nuclear repository safety. This session will focus on both experimental and computational research into the roles geochemical interfaces, in general, and nanoparticles, in particular, play in long term nuclear waste management. It will cover nanoparticles and nanointerfaces relevant to a nuclear waste repository (host rock formations, engineered barriers and technical barriers) and include innovative characterization methods, molecular simulation of radionuclide adsorption and complexation at mineral interfaces, thermodynamic modeling of complex radiogeochemical systems and reactive transport modeling across geochemical barriers. Contributions incorporating complementary experimental and computational studies are particularly welcomed.
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09h: Volcanic Glass Heterogeneity: Primary and Secondary Causes, and Uses
Convenors: Kim Berlo, Victoria Smith, Olivier Reubi
Keynote: Diego Perugini (Universita Perugia)
Orals: Wed PM
Posters: Wed PM
Volcanic glasses from single eruptions can span a wide range in composition, which recent developments in analytical techniques now allow us to explore and exploit. Chemical variability in glasses can result from primary processes such as crystallisation, assimilation, magma mixing and degassing prior and during eruption. Chemical heterogeneity may, in this case, provide unprecedented information on the timescales of processes occurring during the crucial last moments before eruption. However, chemical variability can also be caused by alteration and weathering, which mars fingerprinting efforts and understanding of pre-eruptive processes, but can tell about post-eruptive storage conditions and duration. This session will address the identification and uses of primary and secondary chemical heterogeneity in volcanic glasses. We welcome contributions using groundmass glasses and/or melt inclusions to document and use variability in natural systems, as well as experimental and numerical models addressing the development and fading of chemical gradients in silicate glasses.
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10g: Organic and Inorganic Fluid-Fluid-Rock Interactions in CO2 Storage Systems
Convenors: Axel Liebscher, Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand, Ann-Kathrin Scherf
Keynote: Bernhard Mayer (University of Calgary)
Orals: Thu PM, Fri AM
Posters: Thu PM
This session focuses on thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of fluid-fluid-rock interactions in CO2 storage systems with special emphasis given to extraction and mobilization of organic and inorganic compounds. The topics covered by this session include but are not limited to the role of CO2 as a solvent phase of its own, mobilization of trace metals in the CO2 plume, mobilization of organic compounds and their role for trace metal mobilization, the role of organic compounds for mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the role of CO2 impurities on fluid-fluid-rock interactions. The session aims at bringing together the knowledge gained from the different CO2 storage sites, from natural analogues, from experimental and theoretical studies, and from numerical modelling.
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11c: Metal Solubility in Geofluids and Ore-Forming Silicate Melts
Convenors: Jacob Hanley, Zoltan Zajacz, A.E. Williams-Jones, James Webster
Keynote: Gleb Pokrovski (Université de Toulouse)
Orals: Tue PM, Wed AM, Wed PM
Posters: Tue PM
The continued application of new and novel analytical, computational, and experimental methods to studies of magmatic and hydrothermal ore-forming systems is rapidly increasing our understanding of the physiochemical factors that impact the initial enrichment of ore metals in fluid and melt phases, the successful transport of those metals through reactive host rocks, and the processes governing metal precipitation. This session, sponsored by the Mineral Deposits Division of Canada, welcomes oral and poster contributions that enhance our understanding of metal solubility, speciation, and transport in geologically-relevant fluids (aqueous or non-aqueous)and melts (silicate, sulfide, carbonate) in ore-forming environments.
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11d: Dating of Mineral Deposits and Fluid Flow in the Lithosphere
Convenors: Robert Creaser, Keiko Hattori
Keynote: Holly Stein (AIRIE/Colorado State University)
Orals: Mon AM, Mon PM
Posters: Mon PM
The session welcomes presentations of a broad range of geochemical and isotopic data directed at investigating the nature and timing of mineralization and associated fluid flow at varying depths of the lithosphere. Contributions involving the absolute timing of mineral deposit formation and the relationship to geologic and tectonic processes are especially welcome, as well as geochemical and isotopic studies of fluid flow and metal accumulation in the lithosphere.
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17f: Microbial Catalysis of Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation
Convenors: Liane Benning, Renata van der Weijden, Steeve Bonneville, Carsten Mueller
Keynote: Benedicte Menez (IPGP Paris)
Orals: Mon PM, Tue AM
Posters: Mon PM
Bio-mediated reactions contribute to the cycling of elements and affect geochemical processes at all scales. Micro-organisms with their specific biochemical and physical characteristics are hot-spots where bio-molecules, fluids and minerals all interact. This leads to microbe influenced dissolution, nucleation and precipitation reactions, affecting the kinetics and specific (bio)-mineral properties. The identification, visualization and quantification of sub-micron scale geochemical and metabolic processes increases our understanding of the large scale interactions between the biosphere and the lithosphere. The sampling and observations of these sub-micron scale processes is challenging, however, a range of improved and new techniques are available (e.g. TEM/FIB, STXM, XPS, (Nano)SIMS, µ-FTIR, Raman, FISH, AFM etc. ). This session invites contributions on fundamental and practical studies on mineral-microbe interactions and the application and development of supporting techniques.
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17h: Biogeochemical Cycling of Iron
Convenors: Kristina Straub, Thilo Behrends, Ed Burton, Stefan Peiffer, Cara Santelli
Keynote: Danielle Fortin (University of Ottawa)
Orals: Mon AM, Mon PM
Posters: Mon PM
Iron is an essential nutrient for most organisms and may additionally serve as energy substrate for prokaryotes. Furthermore, iron minerals are important sorbents for trace elements in natural environments. Hence, biologically catalyzed transformations of iron minerals exert a strong influence on most ecosystems. This session welcomes contributions that focus on: (a) the diversity, ecophysiology and biochemistry of prokaryotes that catalyze iron transformations, (b) the rates and mechanisms of the microbial formation or dissolution of iron minerals, and (c) the consequences of iron mineral transformations on the speciation, mobility, and bioavailability of trace elements.
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19b: Large and Complex Atomistic Systems: Physics, Algorithms, and Hardware
Convenors: Adri van Duin, Paolo Raiteri
Keynote: Bill Goddard (Caltech)
Orals: Mon PM
Posters: Mon PM
Over the last years we have seen an significant growth in the size and availability of computer hardware. Hand in hand with this development algorithms and methods have been developed that allow for atomistic scale simulations with unprecedented levels of complexity. As such, computational chemical methods are becoming increasingly relevant to realistic geological systems. This session aims to bring together hardware, software and method development specialists that share the goal of simulating the physics and chemistry of complex materials.
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20g: Applying Synchrotron Science to Geosciences
Convenors: Max Wilke, Hanns-Peter Liermann
Keynote: Leonid Dubrovinsky (Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth)
Orals: Wed AM
Posters: Tue PM
Synchrotron sources provide intense photon beams covering a broad range of energies reaching from the infrared to very hard x-ray regime in order to probe a large variety of different samples and processes. Over the years a large number of techniques have been developed to make use of this probing power and apply it to the study of various processes in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences. Thus, applications are extremely widespread and vary from low/high temperature geochemistry to structural studies of materials of the Earth's mantle and core as well as the analysis of extraterrestrial materials. This session invites contributions that make use of the probing power of synchrotron radiation by applying x-ray spectroscopy, imaging/tomography and x-ray scattering/diffraction. We encourage particularly contributions that explore new avenues in geosciences by developing new techniques in synchrotron sciences.
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20k: Petrology and Geochemistry of Rutile
Convenors: Thomas Zack, Daniel F. Stockli, Alicia Cruz-Uribe
Keynote: Craig Manning (UCLA, US)
Orals: Thu AM, Thu PM
Posters: Thu PM
This session highlights, for the first time, progress on a mineral that has increasingly become the focus of several intensive studies. We invite contributions related to rutile that cover a diverse range of topics such as phase relationships, trace element geochemistry, geochronology, etc. We also welcome studies comparing results for rutile with other accessory phases (e.g., with zircon or titanite).
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